Hong Kong – Wikipédia

Zone métropolitaine et région administrative spéciale de la République populaire de Chine

Région administrative spéciale de la République populaire de Chine

Hong Kong (Chinois: 香港, Cantonais: (hœ́ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ) (écouter)), officiellement le Région administrative spéciale de Hong Kong de la République populaire de Chine (RAEHK) (Chinois simplifié: 中华人民共和国 香港特别行政区; chinois traditionnel: 中華人民共和國 香港特別行政區), est une zone métropolitaine et une région administrative spéciale de la République populaire de Chine dans le delta oriental de la rivière des Perles dans la mer de Chine méridionale. Avec plus de 7,5 millions d'habitants de différentes nationalités(RÉ) Répartie sur 1 104 kilomètres carrés (426 miles carrés), Hong Kong est l'un des endroits les plus densément peuplés du monde.

Hong Kong est devenue une colonie de l'Empire britannique après que l'Empire Qing ait cédé l'île de Hong Kong à la fin de la première guerre de l'opium en 1842.(seize) La colonie s'est étendue à la péninsule de Kowloon en 1860 après la deuxième guerre de l'opium et a été encore étendue lorsque la Grande-Bretagne a obtenu un bail de 99 ans des Nouveaux Territoires en 1898.(17)(18) L'ensemble du territoire a été transféré à la Chine en 1997.(19) En tant que région administrative spéciale, Hong Kong maintient des systèmes gouvernementaux et économiques distincts de la Chine continentale selon le principe «un pays, deux systèmes».(vingt)(moi)

A l'origine une zone peu peuplée de villages agricoles et de pêcheurs,(seize) le territoire est devenu l'un des centres financiers et des ports commerciaux les plus importants du monde.(vingt-et-un) C'est le dixième exportateur et le neuvième importateur au monde.(22)(2. 3) Hong Kong possède une importante économie de services capitaliste caractérisée par de faibles impôts et un libre-échange, et sa monnaie, le dollar de Hong Kong, est la huitième monnaie la plus échangée au monde.(24) Hong Kong abrite le deuxième plus grand nombre de milliardaires de toutes les villes du monde,(25) le plus grand nombre de milliardaires de toutes les villes d'Asie et la plus forte concentration d'individus très fortunés de toutes les villes du monde.(26)(27) Bien que la ville ait l'un des revenus par habitant les plus élevés en soi,(F) Il existe une grave inégalité des revenus, une augmentation de l'accessibilité au logement et une crise de pénurie au sein de la population.(28)(29)

Hong Kong est un territoire très développé et occupe la quatrième place sur l'indice de développement humain des Nations Unies.(30) La ville possède le plus grand nombre de gratte-ciel de toutes les villes du monde,(31) et ses habitants ont l'une des espérances de vie les plus élevées au monde.(30) L'espace dense a conduit à un réseau de transport développé avec des tarifs de transport en commun supérieurs à 90%.(32)

Étymologie

Le nom du territoire, romanisé pour la première fois sous le nom de "He-Ong-Kong" en 1780,(35) à l'origine, il faisait référence à une petite crique située entre l'île d'Aberdeen et la côte sud de l'île de Hong Kong. Aberdeen était un premier point de contact entre les marins britanniques et les pêcheurs locaux.(36) Bien que la source du nom romanisé soit inconnue, on pense généralement qu'il s'agit d'une traduction phonétique précoce de la prononciation cantonaise. hēung góng. Le nom se traduit par «port parfumé» ou «port d'encens».(33)(3. 4)(37) «Parfumé» peut faire référence au goût sucré de l'afflux d'eau douce du port de la rivière des Perles ou à l'odeur des usines d'encens qui bordent le littoral de North Kowloon. L'encens était stocké près du port d'Aberdeen pour l'exportation avant que le port de Victoria ne soit développé.(37)Sir John Davis (le deuxième gouverneur colonial) a offert une origine alternative; Davis a déclaré que le nom dérive de "Hoong-keang" ("ruisseau rouge"), qui reflète la couleur du sol sur lequel coulait une cascade sur l'île.(38)

Le nom simplifié Hong Kong Il était fréquemment utilisé en 1810.(39) Le nom était également couramment orthographié en un seul mot. Hong Kong jusqu'en 1926, date à laquelle le gouvernement a officiellement adopté le nom en deux mots.(40) Certaines sociétés fondées au début de l'ère coloniale conservent encore ce nom, notamment Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric Company, Hongkong and Shanghai Hotels, et Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC).(41)(42)

Histoire

Libération de Hong Kong en 1945. Photographie prise au cénotaphe de Central, Hong Kong

Les premières traces humaines connues à Hong Kong datent d'il y a 35 000 à 39 000 ans au cours de la période paléolithique. La revendication est basée sur des recherches archéologiques à Wong Tei Tung, Sai Kung en 2003. Les travaux archéologiques ont révélé des outils en pierre taillés dans des gisements avec une luminescence optique datant d'il y a entre 35 000 et 39 000 ans.(43)

Au cours de la période néolithique moyenne, il y a environ 6000 ans, la région avait été en grande partie occupée par les humains.(44) Du néolithique à l'âge du bronze, les colons de Hong Kong étaient des peuples semi-côtiers. On pense que les premiers habitants étaient des Austronésiens au Néolithique moyen et plus tard le peuple Yueh.(44) Comme l'indiquent les travaux archéologiques de Sha Ha, Sai Kung, la riziculture avait été introduite depuis la fin de la période néolithique.(Quatre cinq) L'âge du bronze Hong Kong présentait de la poterie brute, de la poterie dure, des bijoux en quartz et en pierre, ainsi que de petits ustensiles en bronze.(44)

La dynastie Qin a d'abord incorporé la région de Hong Kong à la Chine en 214 avant JC. C., après avoir conquis les Indiens Baiyue.(46) La région a été consolidée sous le royaume de Nanyue (un état prédécesseur du Vietnam) après l'effondrement de Qin.(47) et repris par la Chine après la conquête des Han.(48) Lors de la conquête mongole de la Chine au XIIIe siècle, la cour des Song du Sud s'est brièvement installée dans l'actuel Kowloon (le site de Sung Wong Toi) avant leur défaite finale à la bataille de Yamen en 1279.(49) À la fin de la dynastie Yuan, sept familles nombreuses s'étaient installées dans la région et possédaient la plupart des terres. Les colons des provinces voisines ont émigré à Kowloon pendant la dynastie Ming.(cinquante)

Le premier visiteur européen fut l'explorateur portugais Jorge Álvares, arrivé en 1513.(51)(52) Les marchands portugais ont établi un poste de traite appelé Tamão dans les eaux de Hong Kong et ont commencé des échanges réguliers avec le sud de la Chine. Bien que les marchands aient été chassés après des affrontements militaires dans les années 1520,(53) Les relations commerciales entre le Portugal et la Chine ont été rétablies en 1549. Le Portugal a acquis un bail permanent pour Macao en 1557.(54)

Après la conquête des Qing, le commerce maritime a été interdit sous le Haijin Stratégies. L'empereur Kangxi a levé l'interdiction, permettant aux étrangers d'entrer dans les ports chinois en 1684.(55) Les autorités Qing ont établi le système de Canton en 1757 pour réglementer le commerce plus strictement, en limitant les navires non russes au port de Canton.(56) Bien que la demande européenne de produits chinois tels que le thé, la soie et la porcelaine soit élevée, l'intérêt de la Chine pour les produits manufacturés européens était négligeable, de sorte que les produits chinois ne pouvaient être achetés qu'avec des métaux précieux. Pour réduire le déséquilibre commercial, les Britanniques ont vendu de grandes quantités d'opium indien à la Chine. Face à la crise de la drogue, les responsables de Qing ont pris des mesures de plus en plus agressives pour arrêter le commerce de l'opium.(57)

En 1839, l'empereur Daoguang rejeta les propositions de légalisation et de taxation de l'opium et ordonna au commissaire impérial Lin Zexu d'éradiquer le commerce de l'opium. Le commissaire a détruit les stocks d'opium et arrêté tout commerce extérieur,(58) déclencher une réponse militaire britannique et la première guerre de l'opium. Les Qing se sont rendus au début de la guerre et ont cédé l'île de Hong Kong à la Convention de Chuenpi. Cependant, les deux pays étaient mécontents et n'ont pas ratifié l'accord.(59) Après plus d'un an de nouvelles hostilités, l'île de Hong Kong a été officiellement cédée au Royaume-Uni dans le Traité de Nankin de 1842.(60)

L'infrastructure administrative a été rapidement construite au début de 1842, mais la piraterie Qing, la maladie et les politiques hostiles ont initialement empêché le gouvernement d'attirer le commerce. Les conditions sur l'île se sont améliorées pendant la rébellion de Taiping dans les années 1850, lorsque de nombreux réfugiés chinois, y compris de riches marchands, ont fui les troubles sur le continent et se sont installés dans la colonie.(seize) Des tensions supplémentaires entre les Britanniques et les Qing au sujet du commerce de l'opium se sont intensifiées jusqu'à la Seconde Guerre de l'Opium. Les Qing ont de nouveau été vaincus et contraints de céder la péninsule de Kowloon et l'île des tailleurs de pierre à la Convention de Pékin.(17) À la fin de cette guerre, Hong Kong était passé d'un avant-poste colonial de transition à un grand entrepôt. L'amélioration rapide de l'économie au cours des années 1850 a attiré les investissements étrangers, les parties prenantes potentielles ayant gagné en confiance dans l'avenir de Hong Kong.(61)

La colonie s'est encore agrandie en 1898 lorsque la Grande-Bretagne a obtenu un bail de 99 ans des Nouveaux Territoires.(18) L'Université de Hong Kong a été créée en 1911 en tant que premier établissement d'enseignement supérieur du territoire.(62)L'aéroport de Kai Tak a commencé ses opérations en 1924 et la colonie a évité une récession économique prolongée après la grève Canton-Hong Kong de 1925-1926.(63)(64) Au début de la deuxième guerre sino-japonaise en 1937, le gouverneur Geoffry Northcote a déclaré Hong Kong une zone neutre pour sauvegarder son statut de port franc.(Soixante-cinq) Le gouvernement colonial s'est préparé à une éventuelle attaque, évacuant toutes les femmes et tous les enfants britanniques en 1940.(66) L'armée impériale japonaise a attaqué Hong Kong le 8 décembre 1941, le même matin que son attaque sur Pearl Harbor.(67) Hong Kong a été occupée par le Japon pendant près de quatre ans avant que la Grande-Bretagne ne reprenne le contrôle le 30 août 1945.(68)

Sa population s'est rapidement rétablie après la guerre, alors que les immigrants chinois qualifiés ont fui la guerre civile chinoise et que davantage de réfugiés ont traversé la frontière lorsque le Parti communiste chinois a pris le contrôle de la Chine continentale en 1949.(69) Hong Kong est devenue la première des quatre économies asiatiques tigrées à s'industrialiser au cours des années 1950.(70) Avec une population en croissance rapide, le gouvernement colonial a lancé des réformes pour améliorer les infrastructures et les services publics. Le programme de développement de logements sociaux, la Commission indépendante contre la corruption et le chemin de fer de transport en commun ont été créés pendant les décennies d'après-guerre pour fournir des logements plus sûrs, l'intégrité de la fonction publique et des transports plus fiables.(71)(72) Bien que la compétitivité du territoire dans le secteur manufacturier ait progressivement diminué en raison de la hausse des coûts de main-d'œuvre et de propriété, il est passé à une économie de services. Au début des années 90, Hong Kong s'était imposée comme un centre financier mondial et une plaque tournante de l'expédition.(73)
La colonie était confrontée à un avenir incertain à l'approche de la fin du bail des Nouveaux Territoires, et le gouverneur Murray MacLehose a soulevé la question du statut de Hong Kong auprès de Deng Xiaoping en 1979.(74) Les négociations diplomatiques avec la Chine ont abouti à la Déclaration conjointe sino-britannique de 1984, dans laquelle le Royaume-Uni a accepté de transférer la colonie en 1997 et la Chine garantirait les systèmes économiques et politiques de Hong Kong pendant 50 ans après le transfert.(75) Le transfert imminent a déclenché une vague d'émigration massive, les habitants craignant une érosion des droits civils, de l'état de droit et de la qualité de vie.(76) Plus d'un demi-million de personnes ont quitté le territoire pendant la période de migration maximale, de 1987 à 1996.(77) Le Conseil législatif est devenu une assemblée législative pleinement élue pour la première fois en 1995 et a largement élargi ses fonctions et ses organisations tout au long des dernières années de la domination coloniale.(78) Hong Kong a été transféré en Chine le 1er juillet 1997, après 156 ans de domination britannique.(19)

Immédiatement après le transfert, Hong Kong a été gravement touchée par plusieurs crises. Le gouvernement a été contraint d'utiliser d'importantes réserves de change pour maintenir le taux de change du dollar de Hong Kong pendant la crise financière asiatique de 1997.(69) et le rétablissement de cette situation a été réduit au silence par une épidémie de grippe aviaire H5N1(79) et un surplus de logement.(80) Vient ensuite l'épidémie de SRAS de 2003, au cours de laquelle le territoire a connu sa plus grave récession économique.(81)

Les débats politiques après le transfert de souveraineté se sont concentrés sur le développement démocratique de la région et l'adhésion du gouvernement central au principe «un pays, deux systèmes». À la suite du renversement des dernières réformes démocratiques du Conseil législatif de l'époque coloniale qui ont suivi le transfert,(82) le gouvernement régional a tenté en vain de promulguer une législation sur la sécurité nationale conformément à l'article 23 de la Loi fondamentale.(83) La décision du gouvernement central de mettre en œuvre la présélection des candidats avant d'autoriser les élections au PDG a déclenché une série de protestations en 2014 qui est devenue connue sous le nom de révolution des parapluies.(84) Écarts dans la liste électorale et disqualification des législateurs élus après les élections du Conseil législatif de 2016(85)(86)(87) et la mise en œuvre de la législation nationale à la gare ferroviaire à grande vitesse de West Kowloon a soulevé de nouvelles inquiétudes quant à l'autonomie de la région.(88) En juin 2019, des manifestations de masse ont éclaté en réponse à un projet de loi portant amendement à l'extradition permettant l'extradition de fugitifs vers la Chine continentale. Les manifestations sont les plus importantes de l'histoire de Hong Kong,(89) avec des organisateurs affirmant avoir attiré plus d'un million de résidents de Hong Kong.(90)

Gouvernement et politique

Grande salle ronde avec bureaux et estrade

Hong Kong est une région administrative spéciale de la Chine, avec des pouvoirs exécutifs, législatifs et judiciaires délégués au gouvernement national.(91) La déclaration commune sino-britannique prévoyait la continuité économique et administrative par le transfert de souveraineté,(75) résultant en un système de gouvernement dirigé par l'exécutif a hérité d'une grande partie de l'histoire du territoire en tant que colonie britannique.(92) Selon ces termes et le principe «un pays, deux systèmes», la loi fondamentale de Hong Kong est la constitution régionale.(93)

Le gouvernement régional est composé de trois branches:

Le directeur exécutif est le chef du gouvernement et exerce au maximum deux mandats de cinq ans. Le Conseil d'État (dirigé par le Premier ministre chinois) nomme le directeur exécutif après la nomination du Comité électoral, qui est composé de 1 200 chefs d'entreprise, de communauté et de gouvernement.(101)(102)(103)

Le Conseil législatif compte 70 membres, chacun pour un mandat de quatre ans.(104) 35 sont élus directement à partir des districts géographiques et 35 représentent les districts fonctionnels (CF). Trente conseillers FC sont choisis parmi un électorat restreint représentant des secteurs de l'économie ou des groupes d'intérêts spéciaux,(105) et les cinq autres membres sont nommés parmi les membres en exercice du conseil de district et choisis lors d'élections directes en double dans toute la région.(106) Tous les membres élus par le peuple sont élus à la représentation proportionnelle. Les 30 circonscriptions fonctionnelles limitées de l'électorat remplissent leurs sièges au moyen d'un vote instantané au premier ou au second tour.(105)

Vingt-deux partis politiques ont eu des représentants élus au Conseil législatif lors des élections de 2016.(107) Ces partis se sont alignés en trois groupes idéologiques: le camp pro-Pékin (le gouvernement actuel), le camp pro-démocratie et les groupes localistes.(108) Le Parti communiste chinois n'a pas de présence politique officielle à Hong Kong et ses membres ne se présentent pas aux élections locales.(109) Hong Kong est représentée au Congrès national du peuple par 36 députés élus par un collège électoral et 203 délégués à la Conférence consultative politique du peuple chinois nommés par le gouvernement central.(7)

Le dôme gris et fronton d'un bâtiment néoclassique en granit, avec un gratte-ciel en arrière-plan contre un ciel bleu clair

La législation nationale chinoise ne s'applique généralement pas dans la région et Hong Kong est traitée comme une juridiction distincte.(99) Son système judiciaire est basé sur la common law, perpétuant la tradition juridique établie sous la domination britannique.(110) Les tribunaux locaux peuvent se référer aux précédents établis dans le droit anglais et la jurisprudence étrangère.(111) Cependant, la loi continentale de procédure pénale s'applique aux affaires examinées par le Bureau de sauvegarde de la sécurité nationale du CPG de la RASHK.(112) Le pouvoir d'interprétation et de modification de la Loi fondamentale et la compétence sur les actes de l'État incombent à l'autorité centrale, ce qui rend les tribunaux régionaux ultimement subordonnés au système de droit civil socialiste du continent.(113) Les décisions prises par le Comité permanent de l'Assemblée populaire nationale annulent toute procédure judiciaire territoriale.(114) En outre, dans les cas où le Comité permanent déclare l'état d'urgence à Hong Kong, le Conseil d'État peut appliquer la législation nationale de la région.(115)

L'indépendance juridictionnelle du territoire est plus évidente dans ses politiques d'immigration et fiscales. Le Département de l'Immigration délivre des passeports pour les résidents permanents qui diffèrent de ceux du continent ou de Macao,(116) et la région maintient une frontière réglementée avec le reste du pays. Tous les voyageurs entre Hong Kong et la Chine et Macao doivent passer des contrôles aux frontières, quelle que soit leur nationalité.(117) Les citoyens de Chine continentale n'ont pas le droit de résider à Hong Kong et sont soumis à des contrôles d'immigration.(118) Les finances publiques sont gérées séparément du gouvernement national; les impôts perçus à Hong Kong ne financent pas l'autorité centrale.(119)(120)

La garnison de Hong Kong de l'Armée populaire de libération est chargée de la défense de la région.(121) Bien que le président de la Commission militaire centrale soit le commandant suprême des forces armées,(122) le gouvernement régional peut demander l'assistance de la garnison.(123) Les résidents de Hong Kong ne sont pas tenus d'effectuer le service militaire et la loi actuelle ne prévoit pas l'enrôlement local, de sorte que leur défense est entièrement composée de non-Hongkongais.(124)

Le gouvernement central et le ministère des Affaires étrangères s'occupent des affaires diplomatiques, mais Hong Kong conserve la capacité d'entretenir des relations économiques et culturelles séparées avec les nations étrangères.(125) Le territoire participe activement à l'Organisation mondiale du commerce, au Forum de coopération économique Asie-Pacifique, au Comité international olympique et à de nombreuses agences des Nations Unies.(126)(127)(128) Le gouvernement régional a des bureaux commerciaux dans la Grande Chine et dans d'autres pays.(129)

L'imposition de la loi sur la sécurité nationale de Hong Kong par le gouvernement central à Pékin en juin 2020 a entraîné la suspension des traités d'extradition bilatéraux par le Royaume-Uni, le Canada, l'Australie, la Nouvelle-Zélande en juillet et octobre par la Finlande et l'Irlande.(130) Les États-Unis ont mis fin à leur traitement économique et commercial préférentiel de Hong Kong en juillet, car ils ne pouvaient plus distinguer Hong Kong en tant qu'entité distincte de la Chine continentale.(130)(131)

divisions administratives

Le territoire est divisé en 18 districts, chacun représenté par un conseil de district. Ils conseillent le gouvernement sur des questions locales telles que la fourniture d'installations publiques, le maintien des programmes communautaires, la promotion culturelle et la politique environnementale. Les conseils de district comptent au total 479 sièges, dont 452 sont élus au suffrage direct.(132)Les présidents des comités ruraux, représentant les villes périphériques, occupent les 27 sièges non élus.(133)

New Territories Islands Kwai Tsing North Sai Kung Sha Tin Tai Po Tsuen Wan Tuen Mun Yuen Long Kowloon Kowloon City Kwun Tong Sham Shui Po Wong Tai Sin Yau Tsim Mong Hong Kong Island Central and Western Eastern Southern Wan Chai Islands Islands Islands Islands Islands Islands Islands Islands Islands Islands Islands Kwai Tsing North Sai Kung Sai Kung Sai Kung Sai Kung Sai Kung Sai Kung Sai Kung Sha Tin Tai Po Tai Po Tai Po Tai Po Tai Po Tai Po Tsuen Wan Tsuen Wan Tsuen Wan Tuen Mun Tuen Mun Tuen Mun Tuen Mun Yuen Long Kowloon City Kwun Tong Sham Shui Po Wong Tai Sin Yau Tsim Mong Central and Western Eastern Southern Southern Wan Chai

Le territoire principal de Hong Kong se compose d'une péninsule bordant la province du Guangdong au nord, d'une île au sud-est de la péninsule et d'une île plus petite au sud. Ces zones sont entourées de nombreuses îles beaucoup plus petites.

Réformes politiques et problèmes sociopolitiques

À partir de 2020, Hong Kong est considérée comme une démocratie imparfaite qui n'est pas pleinement représentative de la population. Les membres du Conseil législatif élus par des groupes fonctionnels composés de groupes d’intérêts professionnels et spéciaux doivent rendre des comptes à ces groupes restreints d’entreprises et non au grand public. Cette disposition électorale a garanti une majorité en faveur du système dans la législature depuis le transfert de souveraineté. De même, le PDG est choisi par des politiciens établis et des membres corporatifs du comité électoral plutôt que d'être élu directement.(134) Bien que le suffrage universel pour le président exécutif et toutes les élections au conseil législatif soient des objectifs définis aux articles 45 et 68 de la Loi fondamentale,(135) le corps législatif n'est que partiellement élu au suffrage direct et l'exécutif reste nommé par un organe non représentatif.(134) Le gouvernement a été invité à plusieurs reprises à organiser des élections directes pour ces postes.(136)(137)

Les minorités ethniques sont marginalement représentées au gouvernement et sont souvent victimes de discrimination en matière de logement, d'éducation et d'emploi.(138)(139) Les postes vacants et les nominations à la fonction publique ont souvent des exigences linguistiques que les chercheurs d'emploi issus de minorités ne satisfont pas, et les ressources d'enseignement linguistique restent insuffisantes pour les apprenants chinois.(140)(141)Les travailleurs domestiques étrangers, principalement des femmes des Philippines et d'Indonésie, bénéficient d'une protection limitée en vertu de la législation régionale. Bien qu'ils vivent et travaillent à Hong Kong, ces travailleurs ne sont pas traités comme des résidents ordinaires et ne sont généralement pas éligibles au droit de séjour sur le territoire.(142)Le trafic sexuel à Hong Kong est un problème. Les femmes et les filles de Hong Kong et d’autres pays sont contraintes de se prostituer dans des bordels, des maisons et des entreprises.(143)(144)(145)(146)

La déclaration commune garantit la loi fondamentale pendant 50 ans après le transfert de souveraineté.(75) Il ne précise pas comment Hong Kong sera gouvernée après 2047, et le rôle du gouvernement central dans la détermination du futur système de gouvernance du territoire fait l'objet de débats politiques et de spéculations. Les systèmes politique et judiciaire de Hong Kong peuvent être intégrés à ceux de la Chine à l'époque, ou le territoire peut continuer à être administré séparément.(147)(148)

En 2020, dans une période de manifestations à grande échelle, le Comité permanent de l'Assemblée populaire nationale a adopté la loi controversée sur la sécurité nationale de Hong Kong.(149) La loi criminalise les actes précédemment considérés comme protégés par la loi de Hong Kong et crée le Bureau pour la sauvegarde de la sécurité nationale du CPG à RASHK, un bureau d'enquête placé sous l'autorité du gouvernement populaire central et à l'abri de la juridiction de la RASHK.(112)(150) Le Royaume-Uni considère que la loi constitue une violation grave de la déclaration commune.(151)

En octobre 2020, les autorités de Hong Kong ont arrêté sept politiciens du camp pro-démocratie pour leurs combats avec des politiciens pro-Pékin lors du Conseil législatif de mai. Ils ont été accusés d'outrage et d'ingérence avec les membres du conseil, tandis qu'aucun des législateurs pro-Pékin n'a été arrêté.(152)

La géographie

Image satellite montrant les zones de végétation et d'agglomération.

Les zones de développement urbain et de végétation sont visibles sur cette image satellite.

Hong Kong est située sur la côte sud de la Chine, à 60 km (37 miles) à l'est de Macao, du côté est de l'embouchure de l'estuaire de la rivière des Perles. Il est entouré par la mer de Chine méridionale de tous côtés sauf le nord, qui borde la ville de Shenzhen dans le Guangdong le long de la rivière Sham Chun. 1110,18 km du territoiredeux (428,64 miles carrés)(153) Région (2754,97 kmdeux(153) si la zone maritime est incluse) comprend l'île de Hong Kong, la péninsule de Kowloon, les nouveaux territoires, l'île de Lantau et plus de 200 autres îles. Sur la superficie totale, 1073 kmdeux (414 miles carrés) est la terre et 35 kmdeux (14 miles carrés) est de l'eau.(30) Le point culminant du territoire est Tai Mo Shan, à 957 mètres d'altitude.(154) Le développement urbain est concentré sur la péninsule de Kowloon, l'île de Hong Kong et les nouvelles villes des Nouveaux Territoires.(155) Une grande partie de ceci est construite sur des terres récupérées; À 70 kmdeux (27 miles carrés) (six pour cent de la terre totale ou environ 25 pour cent de l'espace développé dans le territoire) est récupéré de la mer.(156)

Le terrain non développé est vallonné à montagneux, avec très peu de terres plates et se compose principalement de prairies, de forêts, de broussailles ou de terres agricoles.(157)(158) Environ 40 pour cent de la superficie restante sont des parcs ruraux et des réserves naturelles.(159) Le territoire possède un écosystème diversifié; plus de 3 000 espèces de plantes vasculaires se trouvent dans la région (dont 300 sont originaires de Hong Kong) et des milliers d'espèces d'insectes, d'oiseaux et marins.(160)(161)

Climat

Hong Kong a un climat subtropical humide (Köppen Cwa), caractéristique du sud de la Chine, bien qu'elle soit située au sud du tropique du cancer. L'été est chaud et humide, avec des averses et des orages occasionnels et de l'air chaud du sud-ouest. Los tifones ocurren con mayor frecuencia entonces, a veces resultando en inundaciones o deslizamientos de tierra. Los inviernos son templados y generalmente soleados al principio, volviéndose nublados hacia febrero; un frente frío ocasional trae fuertes vientos refrescantes del norte. El otoño es la estación más soleada, mientras que la primavera es generalmente nublada.(162) Cuando hay nevadas, lo que es extremadamente raro, suele ser a grandes alturas. Hong Kong tiene un promedio de 1.709 horas de sol al año;(163) Las temperaturas más altas y más bajas registradas en el Observatorio de Hong Kong son 36,6 ° C (97,9 ° F) el 22 de agosto de 2017 y 0,0 ° C (32,0 ° F) el 18 de enero de 1893.(164) Las temperaturas más altas y más bajas registradas en todo Hong Kong son 39,0 ° C (102 ° F) en Wetland Park el 22 de agosto de 2017.(165) y -6,0 ° C (21,2 ° F) en Tai Mo Shan el 24 de enero de 2016.(166)

Datos climáticos de Hong Kong (Observatorio de Hong Kong), normales de 1991 a 2020, extremos de 1884 a 1939 y de 1947 al presente
Mes ene feb mar abr Mayo jun jul ago sep oct nov dic Año
Registro alto ° C (° F) 26,9
(80,4)
28,3
(82,9)
30,1
(86,2)
33,4
(92,1)
35,5
(95,9)
35,6
(96,1)
35,7
(96,3)
36,6
(97,9)
35,2
(95,4)
34,3
(93,7)
31,8
(89,2)
28,7
(83,7)
36,6
(97,9)
Promedio alto ° C (° F) 18,7
(65,7)
19,4
(66,9)
21,9
(71,4)
25,6
(78,1)
28,8
(83,8)
30,7
(87,3)
31,6
(88,9)
31,3
(88,3)
30,5
(86,9)
28,1
(82,6)
24,5
(76,1)
20,4
(68,7)
26,0
(78,8)
Media diaria ° C (° F) 16,5
(61,7)
17.1
(62,8)
19,5
(67,1)
23,0
(73,4)
26,3
(79,3)
28,3
(82,9)
28,9
(84,0)
28,7
(83,7)
27,9
(82,2)
25,7
(78,3)
22,2
(72,0)
18,2
(64,8)
23,5
(74,3)
Promedio bajo ° C (° F) 14,6
(58,3)
15,3
(59,5)
17,6
(63,7)
21,1
(70,0)
24,5
(76,1)
26,5
(79,7)
26,9
(80,4)
26,7
(80,1)
26,1
(79,0)
23,9
(75,0)
20,3
(68,5)
16,2
(61,2)
21,6
(70,9)
Registro bajo ° C (° F) 0.0
(32,0)
2.4
(36,3)
4.8
(40,6)
9,9
(49,8)
15,4
(59,7)
19,2
(66,6)
21,7
(71,1)
21,6
(70,9)
18,4
(65,1)
13,5
(56,3)
6.5
(43,7)
4.3
(39,7)
0.0
(32,0)
Precipitación media mm (pulgadas) 33,2
(1,31)
38,9
(1,53)
75,3
(2,96)
153,0
(6,02)
290,6
(11,44)
491,5
(19,35)
385,8
(15,19)
453,2
(17,84)
321,4
(12,65)
120,3
(4,74)
39,3
(1,55)
28,8
(1,13)
2.431,2
(95,72)
Días lluviosos promedio (≥ 0,1 mm) 5.70 7,97 10,50 11.37 15.37 19,33 18.43 17,50 14,90 7.83 5.70 5.30 139,90
Humedad relativa media (%) 74 79 82 83 83 82 81 81 78 73 72 70 78
Promedio de horas de sol mensuales 145,8 101,7 100,0 113,2 138,8 144,3 197,3 182,1 174,4 197,8 172,3 161,6 1.829,3
Porcentaje posible de luz solar 43 32 27 30 34 36 48 46 47 55 52 48 41
Fuente: Observatorio de Hong Kong(167)(168)

Arquitectura

Bloques altos de pisos, unidos en tres lados.

Hong Kong tiene el mayor número de rascacielos del mundo, con 317 torres de más de 150 metros (490 pies),(31) y el tercer mayor número de edificios de gran altura del mundo.(169) La falta de espacio disponible restringió el desarrollo a complejos residenciales y comerciales de alta densidad agrupados en terrenos edificables.(170)Las casas unifamiliares independientes son extremadamente raras y generalmente solo se encuentran en áreas periféricas.(171)

El Centro de Comercio Internacional y el Centro de Finanzas Internacionales Two son los edificios más altos de Hong Kong y se encuentran entre los más altos de la región de Asia y el Pacífico.(172) Otros edificios distintivos que bordean el horizonte de la isla de Hong Kong incluyen el Edificio Principal HSBC, la Plaza Central triangular con un anemómetro, el Centro Hopewell circular y la Torre del Banco de China de bordes afilados.(173)(174)

La demanda de nuevas construcciones ha contribuido a la demolición frecuente de edificios más antiguos, liberando espacio para los rascacielos modernos.(175) Sin embargo, todavía se encuentran muchos ejemplos de arquitectura europea y lingnan en todo el territorio. Los edificios gubernamentales más antiguos tienden a mostrar ejemplos de arquitectura colonial. La Flagstaff House de 1846, la antigua residencia del oficial militar británico al mando, es el edificio de estilo occidental más antiguo de Hong Kong.(176) Algunos (incluido el edificio del Tribunal de Apelación Final y el Observatorio de Hong Kong) conservan su función original, y otros se han adaptado y reutilizado; el antiguo cuartel general de la policía marítima se convirtió en un complejo comercial y minorista,(177) y Béthanie (construido en 1875 como sanatorio) alberga la Academia de Artes Escénicas de Hong Kong.(178) El Templo Tin Hau, dedicado a la diosa del mar Mazu (originalmente construido en 1012 y reconstruido en 1266), es la estructura existente más antigua del territorio.(179) El Ping Shan Heritage Trail tiene ejemplos arquitectónicos de varias dinastías imperiales chinas, incluida la Pagoda Tsui Sing Lau (la única pagoda que queda en Hong Kong).(180)

Tong lau, edificios de viviendas de uso mixto construidos durante la época colonial, mezclaban estilos arquitectónicos del sur de China con influencias europeas. Estos fueron especialmente prolíficos durante el período inmediato de la posguerra, cuando muchos se construyeron rápidamente para albergar a un gran número de inmigrantes chinos.(181) Los ejemplos incluyen Lui Seng Chun, la Casa Azul en Wan Chai y las tiendas de la calle Shanghai en Mong Kok. Las urbanizaciones de viviendas públicas de producción masiva, construidas desde la década de 1960, están construidas principalmente en estilo modernista.(182)

Skyline at night, with building lights reflected in water
City view of Kowloon, Hong Kong Island, and the Hong Kong skyline

Demographics

Population graph

The Census and Statistics Department estimated Hong Kong's population at 7,482,500 in mid-2019. The overwhelming majority (92 per cent) is Han Chinese,(6) most of whom are Taishanese, Teochew, Hakka, and a number of other Cantonese peoples.(183)(184)(185) The remaining eight per cent are non-ethnic Chinese minorities, primarily Filipinos, Indonesians, and South Asians.(6)(186) About half the population have some form of British nationality, a legacy of colonial rule; 3.4 million residents have British National (Overseas) status, and 260,000 British citizens live in the territory.(187) The vast majority also hold Chinese nationality, automatically granted to all ethnic Chinese residents at the transfer of sovereignty.(188) Headline population density of about 6,800 people/km2 does not reflect true densities since only 6.9% of land is residential, the residential average population density calculates closer to a highly cramped 100,000/km2.

The predominant language is Cantonese, a variety of Chinese originating in Guangdong. It is spoken by 94.6 per cent of the population, 88.9 per cent as a first language and 5.7 per cent as a second language.(3) Slightly over half the population (53.2 per cent) speaks English, the other official language;(2) 4.3 per cent are native speakers, and 48.9 per cent speak English as a second language.(3)Code-switching, mixing English and Cantonese in informal conversation, is common among the bilingual population.(189) Post-handover governments have promoted Mandarin, which is currently about as prevalent as English; 48.6 per cent of the population speaks Mandarin, with 1.9 per cent native speakers and 46.7 per cent speaking it as a second language.(3)Traditional Chinese characters are used in writing, rather than the simplified characters used on the mainland.(190)

Among the religious population, the traditional "three teachings" of China, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism, have the most adherents (20 per cent), and are followed by Christianity (12 per cent) and Islam (4 per cent).(191) Followers of other religions, including Sikhism, Hinduism, Judaism, and the Baháʼí Faith, generally originate from regions where their religion predominates.(191)

Life expectancy in Hong Kong was 82.2 years for males and 87.6 years for females in 2018, the sixth-highest in the world.(192)Cancer, pneumonia, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and accidents are the territory's five leading causes of death.(193) The universal public healthcare system is funded by general-tax revenue, and treatment is highly subsidised; on average, 95 per cent of healthcare costs are covered by the government.(194)

Income inequality has risen since the transfer of sovereignty, as the region's ageing population has gradually added to the number of nonworking people.(195) Although median household income steadily increased during the decade to 2016, the wage gap remained high;(196) the 90th percentile of earners receive 41 per cent of all income.(196) The city has the most billionaires per capita, with one billionaire per 109,657 people.(197) Despite government efforts to reduce the growing disparity,(198) median income for the top 10 per cent of earners is 44 times that of the bottom 10 per cent.(199)(200)

Economía

Hong Kong has a capitalist mixed service economy, characterised by low taxation, minimal government market intervention, and an established international financial market.(201) It is the world's 35th-largest economy, with a nominal GDP of approximately US$373 billion.(11) Although Hong Kong's economy has ranked at the top of the Heritage Foundation's economic freedom index since 1995,(202)(203) the territory has a relatively high level of income disparity.(12) The Hong Kong Stock Exchange is the seventh-largest in the world, with a market capitalisation of HK$30.4 trillion (US$3.87 trillion) as of December 2018.(204)

Hong Kong is the tenth-largest trading entity in exports and imports (2017), trading more goods in value than its gross domestic product.(22)(23) Over half of its cargo throughput consists of transshipments (goods travelling through Hong Kong). Products from mainland China account for about 40 per cent of that traffic.(205) The city's location allowed it to establish a transportation and logistics infrastructure which includes the world's seventh-busiest container port(206) and the busiest airport for international cargo.(207) The territory's largest export markets are mainland China and the United States.(30) Hong Kong is part of the Maritime Silk Road that runs from the Chinese coast via the Suez Canal to the Mediterranean, there to the Upper Adriatic region of Trieste with its rail connections to Central and Eastern Europe.(208)(209)(210)(211)(212)

It has little arable land and few natural resources, importing most of its food and raw materials. More than 90 per cent of Hong Kong's food is imported, including nearly all its meat and rice.(213) Agricultural activity is 0.1% of GDP, and consists of growing premium food and flower varieties.(214)

Although the territory had one of Asia's largest manufacturing economies during the latter half of the colonial era, Hong Kong's economy is now dominated by the service sector. The sector generates 92.7 per cent of economic output, with the public sector accounting for about 10 per cent.(215) Between 1961 and 1997 Hong Kong's gross domestic product increased by a factor of 180, and per capita GDP increased by a factor of 87.(216)(217) The territory's GDP relative to mainland China's peaked at 27 per cent in 1993; it fell to less than three per cent in 2017, as the mainland developed and liberalised its economy.(218)
Economic and infrastructure integration with China has increased significantly since the 1978 start of market liberalisation on the mainland. Since resumption of cross-boundary train service in 1979, many rail and road links have been improved and constructed (facilitating trade between regions).(219)(220) The Closer Partnership Economic Arrangement formalised a policy of free trade between the two areas, with each jurisdiction pledging to remove remaining obstacles to trade and cross-boundary investment.(221) A similar economic partnership with Macau details the liberalisation of trade between the special administrative regions.(222) Chinese companies have expanded their economic presence in the territory since the transfer of sovereignty. Mainland firms represent over half of the Hang Seng Index value, up from five per cent in 1997.(223)(224)

Large, empty room, with many desks and computer terminals

As the mainland liberalised its economy, Hong Kong's shipping industry faced intense competition from other Chinese ports. Fifty per cent of China's trade goods were routed through Hong Kong in 1997, dropping to about 13 per cent by 2015.(225) The territory's minimal taxation, common law system, and civil service attract overseas corporations wishing to establish a presence in Asia.(225) The city has the second-highest number of corporate headquarters in the Asia-Pacific region.(226) Hong Kong is a gateway for foreign direct investment in China, giving investors open access to mainland Chinese markets through direct links with the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges. The territory was the first market outside mainland China for renminbi-denominated bonds, and is one of the largest hubs for offshore renminbi trading.(227) In November 2020, Hong Kong’s Financial Services and the Treasury Bureau proposed a new law that will restrict cryptocurrency trading to professional investors only, leaving amateur traders (93% of Hong Kong's trading population) out of the market.(228)

The government has had a passive role in the economy. Colonial governments had little industrial policy, and implemented almost no trade controls. Under the doctrine of "positive non-interventionism", post-war administrations deliberately avoided the direct allocation of resources; active intervention was considered detrimental to economic growth.(229) While the economy transitioned to a service basis during the 1980s,(229) late colonial governments introduced interventionist policies. Post-handover administrations continued and expanded these programmes, including export-credit guarantees, a compulsory pension scheme, a minimum wage, anti-discrimination laws, and a state mortgage backer.(230)

Tourism is a major part of the economy, accounting for five per cent of GDP.(177) In 2016, 26.6 million visitors contributed HK$258 billion (US$32.9 billion) to the territory, making Hong Kong the 14th most popular destination for international tourists. It is the most popular Chinese city for tourists, receiving over 70 per cent more visitors than its closest competitor (Macau).(231) The city is ranked as one of the most expensive cities for expatriates.(232)(233)

Infraestructura

Transport

Tunnel entrance at night, with heavy traffic

Hong Kong has a highly developed, sophisticated transport network. Over 90 per cent of daily trips are made on public transport, the highest percentage in the world.(32) The Octopus card, a contactless smart payment card, is widely accepted on railways, buses and ferries, and can be used for payment in most retail stores.(234)

The Mass Transit Railway (MTR) is an extensive passenger rail network, connecting 93 metro stations throughout the territory.(235) With a daily ridership of over five million, the system serves 41 per cent of all public transit passengers in the city(236) and has an on-time rate of 99.9 per cent.(237) Cross-boundary train service to Shenzhen is offered by the East Rail line, and longer-distance inter-city trains to Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Beijing are operated from Hung Hom station.(238)Connecting service to the national high-speed rail system is provided at West Kowloon railway station.(239)

Although public transport systems handle most passenger traffic, there are over 500,000 private vehicles registered in Hong Kong.(240) Automobiles drive on the left (unlike in mainland China), due to historical influence of the British Empire.(241) Vehicle traffic is extremely congested in urban areas, exacerbated by limited space to expand roads and an increasing number of vehicles.(242) More than 18,000 taxicabs, easily identifiable by their bright colour, are licensed to carry riders in the territory.(243)Bus services operate more than 700 routes across the territory,(236) with smaller public light buses (also known as minibuses) serving areas standard buses do not reach as frequently or directly.(244) Highways, organised with the Hong Kong Strategic Route and Exit Number System, connect all major areas of the territory.(245) The Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge provides a direct route to the western side of the Pearl River estuary.(220)

Light-rail train on a straightaway

Hong Kong International Airport is the territory's primary airport. Over 100 airlines operate flights from the airport, including locally based Cathay Pacific (flag carrier), Hong Kong Airlines, low-cost airline HK Express and cargo airline Air Hong Kong.(246) It is the eighth-busiest airport by passenger traffic,(247) and handles the most air-cargo traffic in the world.(248) Most private recreational aviation traffic flies through Shek Kong Airfield, under the supervision of the Hong Kong Aviation Club.(249)

The Star Ferry operates two lines across Victoria Harbour for its 53,000 daily passengers.(250) Ferries also serve outlying islands inaccessible by other means. Smaller kai-to boats serve the most remote coastal settlements.(251) Ferry travel to Macau and mainland China is also available.(252)Junks, once common in Hong Kong waters, are no longer widely available and are used privately and for tourism.(253)

The Peak Tram, Hong Kong's first public transport system, has provided funicular rail transport between Central and Victoria Peak since 1888.(254) The Central and Western District has an extensive system of escalators and moving pavements, including the Mid-Levels escalator (the world's longest outdoor covered escalator system).(255)Hong Kong Tramways covers a portion of Hong Kong Island. The MTR operates its Light Rail system, serving the northwestern New Territories.(235)

Utilities

Hong Kong generates most of its electricity locally.(256) The vast majority of this energy comes from fossil fuels, with 46 per cent from coal and 47 per cent from petroleum.(257) The rest is from other imports, including nuclear energy generated in mainland China.(258) Renewable sources account for a negligible amount of energy generated for the territory.(259) Small-scale wind-power sources have been developed,(256) and a small number of private homes and public buildings have installed solar panels.(260)

With few natural lakes and rivers, high population density, inaccessible groundwater sources, and extremely seasonal rainfall, the territory does not have a reliable source of freshwater. The Dongjiang River in Guangdong supplies 70 per cent of the city's water,(261) and the remaining demand is filled by harvesting rainwater.(262) Toilets in most built-up areas of the territory flush with seawater, greatly reducing freshwater use.(261)

Broadband Internet access is widely available, with 92.6 per cent of households connected. Connections over fibre-optic infrastructure are increasingly prevalent,(263) contributing to the high regional average connection speed of 21.9 Mbit/s (the world's fourth-fastest).(264) Mobile-phone use is ubiquitous;(265) there are more than 18 million mobile-phone accounts,(266) more than double the territory's population.

Culture

Hong Kong is characterised as a hybrid of East and West. Traditional Chinese values emphasising family and education blend with Western ideals, including economic liberty and the rule of law.(267) Although the vast majority of the population is ethnically Chinese, Hong Kong has developed a distinct identity. The territory diverged from the mainland due to its long period of colonial administration and a different pace of economic, social, and cultural development. Mainstream culture is derived from immigrants originating from various parts of China. This was influenced by British-style education, a separate political system, and the territory's rapid development during the late 20th century.(268)(269) Most migrants of that era fled poverty and war, reflected in the prevailing attitude toward wealth; Hongkongers tend to link self-image and decision-making to material benefits.(270)(271) Residents' sense of local identity has markedly increased post-handover: 53 per cent of the population identify as "Hongkongers", while 11 per cent describe themselves as "Chinese". The remaining population purport mixed identities, 23 per cent as "Hongkonger in China" and 12 per cent as "Chinese in Hong Kong".(272)

Traditional Chinese family values, including family honour, filial piety, and a preference for sons, are prevalent.(273)Nuclear families are the most common households, although multi-generational and extended families are not unusual.(274) Spiritual concepts such as feng shui are observed; large-scale construction projects often hire consultants to ensure proper building positioning and layout. The degree of its adherence to feng shui is believed to determine the success of a business.(173)Bagua mirrors are regularly used to deflect evil spirits,(275) and buildings often lack floor numbers with a 4;(276) the number has a similar sound to the word for "die" in Cantonese.(277)

Cocina

An assortment of items in a Dim Sum breakfast meal
French Toast on left, Milk Tea on right

Food in Hong Kong is primarily based on Cantonese cuisine, despite the territory's exposure to foreign influences and its residents' varied origins. Rice is the staple food, and is usually served plain with other dishes.(278) Freshness of ingredients is emphasised. Poultry and seafood are commonly sold live at wet markets, and ingredients are used as quickly as possible.(279) There are five daily meals: breakfast, lunch, afternoon tea, dinner, and siu yeh.(280)Dim sum, as part of yum cha (brunch), is a dining-out tradition with family and friends. Dishes include congee, cha siu bao, siu yuk, egg tarts, and mango pudding. Local versions of Western food are served at cha chaan teng (fast, casual restaurants). Common cha chaan teng menu items include macaroni in soup, deep-fried French toast, and Hong Kong-style milk tea.(278)

Cinema

Statue of Bruce Lee in a fighting pose

Statue of Bruce Lee on the Avenue of Stars, a tribute to the city's film industry

Hong Kong developed into a filmmaking hub during the late 1940s as a wave of Shanghai filmmakers migrated to the territory, and these movie veterans helped rebuild the colony's entertainment industry over the next decade.(281) By the 1960s, the city was well known to overseas audiences through films such as The World of Suzie Wong.(282) When Bruce Lee's Way of the Dragon was released in 1972, local productions became popular outside Hong Kong. During the 1980s, films such as A Better Tomorrow, As Tears Go By, y Zu Warriors from the Magic Mountain expanded global interest beyond martial arts films; locally made gangster films, romantic dramas, and supernatural fantasies became popular.(283) Hong Kong cinema continued to be internationally successful over the following decade with critically acclaimed dramas such as Farewell My Concubine, To Live, y Chungking Express. The city's martial arts film roots are evident in the roles of the most prolific Hong Kong actors. Jackie Chan, Donnie Yen, Jet Li, Chow Yun-fat, and Michelle Yeoh frequently play action-oriented roles in foreign films. At the height of the local movie industry in the early 1990s, over 400 films were produced each year; since then, industry momentum shifted to mainland China. The number of films produced annually has declined to about 60 in 2017.(284)

Música

Leslie Cheung with a microphone
A serious-looking Andy Lau, seated and wearing a suit
Leslie Cheung (left) is considered a pioneering Cantopop artist, and Andy Lau has been an icon of Hong Kong music and film for several decades as a member of the Four Heavenly Kings.

Cantopop is a genre of Cantonese popular music which emerged in Hong Kong during the 1970s. Evolving from Shanghai-style shidaiqu, it is also influenced by Cantonese opera and Western pop.(285) Local media featured songs by artists such as Sam Hui, Anita Mui, Leslie Cheung, and Alan Tam; during the 1980s, exported films and shows exposed Cantopop to a global audience.(286) The genre's popularity peaked in the 1990s, when the Four Heavenly Kings dominated Asian record charts.(287) Despite a general decline since late in the decade,(288) Cantopop remains dominant in Hong Kong; contemporary artists such as Eason Chan, Joey Yung, and Twins are popular in and beyond the territory.(289)

Western classical music has historically had a strong presence in Hong Kong, and remains a large part of local musical education.(290) The publicly funded Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra, the territory's oldest professional symphony orchestra, frequently host musicians and conductors from overseas. The Hong Kong Chinese Orchestra, composed of classical Chinese instruments, is the leading Chinese ensemble and plays a significant role in promoting traditional music in the community.(291)

Sport and recreation

Cheering rugby fans, seen from the stands

Despite its small area, the territory is home to a variety of sports and recreational facilities. The city has hosted a number of major sporting events, including the 2009 East Asian Games, the 2008 Summer Olympics equestrian events, and the 2007 Premier League Asia Trophy.(292) The territory regularly hosts the Hong Kong Sevens, Hong Kong Marathon, Hong Kong Tennis Classic and Lunar New Year Cup, and hosted the inaugural AFC Asian Cup and the 1995 Dynasty Cup.(293)(294)

Hong Kong represents itself separately from mainland China, with its own sports teams in international competitions.(292) The territory has participated in almost every Summer Olympics since 1952, and has earned three medals. Lee Lai-shan won the territory's first and only Olympic gold medal at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics.(295) Hong Kong athletes have won 126 medals at the Paralympic Games and 17 at the Commonwealth Games. No longer part of the Commonwealth of Nations, the city's last appearance in the latter was in 1994.(296)

Dragon boat races originated as a religious ceremony conducted during the annual Tuen Ng Festival. The race was revived as a modern sport as part of the Tourism Board's efforts to promote Hong Kong's image abroad. The first modern competition was organised in 1976, and overseas teams began competing in the first international race in 1993.(297)

The Hong Kong Jockey Club, the territory's largest taxpayer,(298) has a monopoly on gambling and provides over seven per cent of government revenue.(299) Three forms of gambling are legal in Hong Kong: lotteries and betting on horse racing and football.(298)

Education

Education in Hong Kong is largely modelled after that of the United Kingdom, particularly the English system.(300) Children are required to attend school from the age of six until completion of secondary education, generally at age 18.(301)(302) At the end of secondary schooling, all students take a public examination and awarded the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education on successful completion.(303) Of residents aged 15 and older, 81.3 per cent completed lower-secondary education, 66.4 per cent graduated from an upper secondary school, 31.6 per cent attended a non-degree tertiary program, and 24 per cent earned a bachelor's degree or higher.(304) Mandatory education has contributed to an adult literacy rate of 95.7 per cent.(305) Lower than that of other developed economies, the rate is due to the influx of refugees from mainland China during the post-war colonial era. Much of the elderly population were not formally educated due to war and poverty.(306)(307)

Comprehensive schools fall under three categories: public schools, which are government-run; subsidised schools, including government aid-and-grant schools; and private schools, often those run by religious organisations and that base admissions on academic merit. These schools are subject to the curriculum guidelines as provided by the Education Bureau. Private schools subsidised under the Direct Subsidy Scheme and international schools fall outside of this system and may elect to use differing curricula and teach using other languages.(302)

The government maintains a policy of "mother tongue instruction"; most schools use Cantonese as the medium of instruction, with written education in both Chinese and English. Other languages being used as medium of instruction in non-international school education includes English and Putonghua (Standard Mandarin Chinese). Secondary schools emphasise "bi-literacy and tri-lingualism", which has encouraged the proliferation of spoken Mandarin language education.(308)

Hong Kong has eleven universities. The University of Hong Kong was founded as the city's first institute of higher education during the early colonial period in 1911.(309) The Chinese University of Hong Kong was established in 1963 to fill the need for a university that taught using Chinese as its primary language of instruction.(310) Along with the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and City University of Hong Kong, these universities are ranked among the best in Asia.(311) The Hong Kong Polytechnic University,(312)Hong Kong Baptist University,(313)Lingnan University,(314)Education University of Hong Kong,(315)Open University of Hong Kong,(316)Hong Kong Shue Yan University and The Hang Seng University of Hong Kong were all established in subsequent years.(317)

Media

Modern, green-and-white building with dish antennas on top

TVB City, headquarters of Hong Kong's first over-the-air television station

Hong Kong's major English-language newspaper is the South China Morning Post, with El estandar serving as a business-oriented alternative. A variety of Chinese-language newspapers are published daily; the most prominent are Ming Pao, Oriental Daily News, y Apple Daily. Local publications are often politically affiliated, with pro-Beijing or pro-democracy sympathies. The central government has a print-media presence in the territory through the state-owned Ta Kung Pao y Wen Wei Po.(318) Several international publications have regional operations in Hong Kong, including The Wall Street Journal, The Financial Times, The New York Times International Edition, USA Today, Yomiuri Shimbun, y The Nikkei.(319)

Three free-to-air television broadcasters operate in the territory; TVB, HKTVE, and Hong Kong Open TV air eight digital channels.(320) TVB, Hong Kong's dominant television network, has an 80 per cent viewer share.(321)Pay TV services operated by Cable TV Hong Kong and PCCW offer hundreds of additional channels and cater to a variety of audiences.(320)RTHK is the public broadcaster, providing seven radio channels and three television channels.(322) Ten non-domestic broadcasters air programming for the territory's foreign population.(320) Access to media and information over the Internet is not subject to mainland Chinese regulations, including the Great Firewall, yet local control applies.(323)

Ver también

Notes and references

Notes

References

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  • Leung, Julian Y.M. (2016). "Education in Hong Kong and China: Towards Convergence?". In Chan, Ming K.; Postiglione, Gerard A. (eds.). The Hong Kong Reader: Passage to Chinese Sovereignty: Passage to Chinese Sovereignty. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-315-48835-6.
  • Li, Guo (2012). "A Site Catchment Analysis of Hong Kong's Neolithic Subsistence". In Cheng, Pei-kai; Fan, Ka Wai (eds.). New Perspectives on the Research of Chinese Culture. Springer. pp. 17–43. doi:10.1007/978-981-4021-78-4_2. ISBN 978-981-4021-77-7.
  • Littlewood, Michael (2010). Taxation Without Representation: The History of Hong Kong's Troublingly Successful Tax System. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 978-962-209-099-6.
  • Long, Lucy M. (2015). Ethnic American Food Today: A Cultural Encyclopedia. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-4422-2730-9.
  • Morton, Brian; Harper, Elizabeth (1995). An Introduction to the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve, Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 978-962-209-388-1.
  • Owen, Bernie; Shaw, Raynor (2007). Hong Kong Landscapes: Shaping the Barren Rock. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 978-962-209-847-3.
  • Porter, Jonathan (1996). Macau, the Imaginary City: Culture and Society, 1557 to the Present. Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-2836-2.
  • Preston, Peter Wallace; Haacke, Jürgen (2003). Contemporary China: The Dynamics of Change at the Start of the New Millennium. RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 978-0-7007-1637-1.
  • Schottenhammer, Angela (2007). The East Asian Maritime World 1400–1800: Its Fabrics of Power and Dynamics of Exchanges. Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-05474-4.
  • Room, Adrian (2005). Placenames of the World. McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-2248-7.
  • Scott, Ian (1989). Political Change and the Crisis of Legitimacy in Hong Kong. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-1269-0.
  • Shen, Jianfa; Kee, Gordon (2017). Development and Planning in Seven Major Coastal Cities in Southern and Eastern China. Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-46421-3. ISBN 978-3-319-46420-6.
  • Smith, Gareth Dylan; Moir, Zack; Brennan, Matt; Rambarran, Shara; Kirkman, Phil (2017). The Routledge Research Companion to Popular Music Education. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-4724-6498-9.
  • Snow, Philip (2003). The Fall of Hong Kong: Britain, China and the Japanese Occupation. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10373-1.
  • Tam, Maria Wai-chu; Chan, Eugene Kin-keung; Choi Kwan, Janice Wing-kum; Leung, Gloria Chi-kin; Lo, Alexandra Dak-wai; Tang, Simon Shu-pui (2012). "Basic Law – the Source of Hong Kong's Progress and Development" (PDF). The Basic Law and Hong Kong – The 15th Anniversary of Reunification with the Motherland. Working Group on Overseas Community of the Basic Law Promotion Steering Committee. OCLC 884571397.
  • Tsang, Steve (2007). A Modern History of Hong Kong. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-419-0.
  • von Glahn, Richard (1996). Fountain of Fortune: Money and Monetary Policy in China, 1000–1700. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-91745-3.
  • Wasserstrom, Jeffrey. Vigil: Hong Kong on the Brink (2020) Online review
  • Wills, John E. (1998). "Relations with Maritime Europe, 1514–1662". In Twitchett, Denis; Mote, Frederick W. (eds.). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 8, The Ming Dynasty, 1368–1644. 2. Cambridge University Press. pp. 333–375. doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521243339.009. ISBN 978-0-521-24333-9.
  • Wiltshire, Trea (1997). Old Hong Kong Volume II: 1901–1945 (5th ed.). FormAsia Books. ISBN 978-962-7283-13-3.
  • Wong, Siu Lun (1992). Emigration and stability in Hong Kong (PDF). University of Hong Kong. ISBN 978-962-7558-09-5.
  • Wordie, Jason (2007). Streets: Exploring Kowloon. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 978-962-209-813-8.
  • UNWTO Tourism Highlights: 2017 Edition. World Tourism Organization. 2017. doi:10.18111/9789284419029. ISBN 978-92-844-1901-2.
  • Xi, Xu; Ingham, Mike (2003). City Voices: Hong Kong writing in English, 1945–present. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 978-962-209-605-9.
  • Xue, Charlie Q.L. (2016). Hong Kong Architecture 1945–2015: From Colonial to Global. Springer. doi:10.1007/978-981-10-1004-0. ISBN 978-981-10-1003-3.
  • Yanne, Andrew; Heller, Gillis (2009). Signs of a Colonial Era. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 978-962-209-944-9.
  • Yeung, Rikkie (2008). Moving Millions: The Commercial Success and Political Controversies of Hong Kong's Railways. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 978-962-209-963-0.
  • Young, Simon N.M.; Cullen, Richard (2010). Electing Hong Kong's Chief Executive. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 978-988-8028-39-9.
  • Zhihong, Shi (2006). "China's Overseas Trade Policy and Its Historical Results: 1522–1840". In Latham, A.J.H.; Kawakatsu, Heita (eds.). Intra-Asian Trade and the World Market. Routledge. pp. 4–23. ISBN 978-0-415-37207-7.

Legislation and case law

  • Amendment to the Basic Law Annex I (Instrument A111)
  • Basic Law Chapter II
  • Basic Law Chapter III
  • Basic Law Chapter IV
  • Basic Law Chapter V
  • Basic Law Chapter VII
  • Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Another v the President of the Legislative Council, HCAL 185/2016, at para. 20
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China (Instrument A1)
  • District Councils Ordinance (Cap. 547) Schedule 3
  • Emergency Regulations Ordinance (Cap. 241)
  • Hong Kong Baptist University Ordinance (Cap. 1126)
  • Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Passports Ordinance (Cap. 539)
  • Lingnan University Ordinance (Cap. 1165)
  • Ng Ka Ling and Another v the Director of Immigration, FACV 14/1998, at para. 63
  • Official Languages Ordinance (Cap. 5) § 3(1)
  • Sino-British Joint Declaration (Instrument A301)
  • Standing Committee Interpretation Concerning Implementation of Chinese Nationality Law in Hong Kong (Instrument A204)
  • The Education University of Hong Kong Ordinance (Cap. 444)
  • The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Ordinance (Cap. 1075)
  • The Open University of Hong Kong Ordinance (Cap. 1145)

Academic publications

  • Chen, Li (2011). "Universalism and Equal Sovereignty as Contested Myths of International Law in the Sino-Western Encounter". Journal of the History of International Law. 13 (1): 75–116. doi:10.1163/157180511X552054.
  • Cheng, Edmund W. (June 2016). "Street Politics in a Hybrid Regime: The Diffusion of Political Activism in Post-colonial Hong Kong". The China Quarterly. 226: 383–406. doi:10.1017/S0305741016000394.
  • Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Lum, Terry; Lam, Linda C. W.; Fung, Helene H. (2013). "Hong Kong: Embracing a Fast Aging Society With Limited Welfare". The Gerontologist. 53 (4): 527–533. doi:10.1093/geront/gnt017. PMID 23528290.
  • Cullinane, S. (2002). "The relationship between car ownership and public transport provision: a case study of Hong Kong". Transport Policy. 9 (1): 29–39. doi:10.1016/S0967-070X(01)00028-2.
  • Fan, Shuh Ching (1974). "The Population of Hong Kong" (PDF). World Population Year: 1–2. OCLC 438716102.
  • Forrest, Ray; La Grange, Adrienne; Yip, Ngai-ming (2004). "Hong Kong as a Global City? Social Distance and Spatial Differentiation". Urban Studies. 41 (1): 207–227. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.1032.5974. doi:10.1080/0042098032000155759. S2CID 154042413.
  • Fu, Poshek (2008). "Japanese Occupation, Shanghai Exiles, and Postwar Hong Kong Cinema". The China Quarterly. 194 (194): 380–394. doi:10.1017/S030574100800043X. JSTOR 20192203. S2CID 154730809.
  • Fulton Commission (1963). "Report of the Fulton Commission, 1963: Commission to Advise on the Creation of a Federal-Type Chinese University in Hong Kong". Minerva. 1 (4): 493–507. doi:10.1007/bf01107190. JSTOR 41821589. S2CID 189763965.
  • Jordan, Ann D. (1997). "Lost in the Translation: Two Legal Cultures, the Common Law Judiciary and the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region". Cornell International Law Journal. 30 (2): 335–380.
  • Lee, John (2012). "A Corpus-Based Analysis of Mixed Code in Hong Kong Speech". 2012 International Conference on Asian Language Processing. Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Asian Language Processing. pp. 165–168. doi:10.1109/IALP.2012.10. ISBN 978-1-4673-6113-2. S2CID 16210378.
  • Lee, Kwai Sang; Leung, Wai Mun (2012). "The status of Cantonese in the education policy of Hong Kong". Multilingual Education. 2 (2): 2. doi:10.1186/2191-5059-2-2.
  • Lee, Nelson K. (2013). "The Changing Nature of Border, Scale and the Production of Hong Kong's Water Supply System since 1959". International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. 38 (3): 903–921. doi:10.1111/1468-2427.12060.
  • McKercher, Bob; Ho, Pamela S.Y.; du Cros, Hilary (2004). "Attributes of Popular Attractions in Hong Kong". Annals of Tourism Research. 31 (2): 393–407. doi:10.1016/j.annals.2003.12.008. hdl:10397/29409.
  • Meacham, William (1999). "Neolithic to Historic in the Hong Kong Region". Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin. 18 (2): 121–128. doi:10.7152/bippa.v18i0.11707. eISSN 0156-1316. hdl:10722/208530.
  • Ming, Sing (2006). "The Legitimacy Problem and Democratic Reform in Hong Kong". Journal of Contemporary China. 15 (48): 517–532. doi:10.1080/10670560600736558. S2CID 154949190.
  • Poon, Simpson; Chau, Patrick (2001). "Octopus: The Growing E-payment System in Hong Kong" (PDF). Electronic Markets. 11 (2): 97–106. doi:10.1080/101967801300197016. S2CID 18766585.
  • Sofield, Trevor H.B.; Sivan, Atara (2003). "From Cultural Festival to International Sport – The Hong Kong Dragon Boat Races". Journal of Sport & Tourism. 8 (1): 9–20. doi:10.1080/14775080306242. S2CID 144106613.
  • Tong, C. O.; Wong, S. C. (1997). "The advantages of a high density, mixed land use, linear urban development". Transporte. 24 (3): 295–307. doi:10.1023/A:1004987422746. S2CID 152365622.
  • Wong, Eliza L.Y.; Yeoh, Eng-kiong; Chau, Patsy Y.K.; Yam, Carrie H.K.; Cheung, Annie W.L.; Fung, Hong (2015). "How shall we examine and learn about public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the health sector? Realist evaluation of PPPs in Hong Kong". Social Science & Medicine. 147: 261–269. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.11.012. PMID 26605970.

Institutional reports

  • A List of Licensed Broadcasting Services in Hong Kong (PDF) (Report). Office of the Communications Authority. 1 June 2018.
  • Adaptation of Laws Programme – Guiding Principles and Guideline Glossary of Terms (PDF) (Report). Legislative Council. November 1998.
  • Agriculture and Fisheries (PDF). Hong Kong: The Facts (Report). Hong Kong Government. May 2017.
  • Airport Traffic Report (PDF) (Report). Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. 14 April 2017.
  • Akamai's State of the Internet – Q1 2017 Report (PDF) (Report). Akamai Technologies. 2017.
  • Annual Report 2016/17 (PDF) (Report). Airport Authority Hong Kong. 12 June 2017.
  • Annual Report 2016–17 (PDF) (Report). Inland Revenue Department. 2017.
  • Annual Report 2017 (PDF) (Report). Hongkong and Shanghai Hotels. 2017.
  • Annual Report and Accounts 2011 (PDF) (Report). The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. 2011.
  • APAC Regional Headquarters (PDF) (Report). Cushman & Wakefield. April 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  • Béthanie – The Academy's Landmark Heritage Campus (PDF) (Report). Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts. September 2015.
  • Developing a Supplementary Guide to the Chinese Language Curriculum for Non-Chinese Speaking Students (PDF) (Report). Legislative Council. January 2008.
  • District Administration (PDF). Hong Kong: The Facts (Report). Hong Kong Government. April 2016.
  • Economic development: Statistical Highlights (PDF) (Report). Legislative Council. 26 April 2017.
  • Family Survey 2013 (PDF) (Report). Legislative Council. July 2014.
  • The UK's relations with Hong Kong: 30 years after the Joint Declaration (PDF) (Report). Parliament of the United Kingdom. 6 March 2015.
  • Foreign and Commonwealth Office (October 2014). Written evidence from Foreign and Commonwealth Office (PDF) (Report). Parliament of the United Kingdom.
  • Geography and Climate (PDF) (Report). Census and Statistics Department. 2010.
  • Guidelines on the Legislative Council Election (PDF) (Report). Electoral Affairs Commission. 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 November 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  • Health Facts of Hong Kong: 2017 Edition (PDF) (Report). Department of Health. 2017.
  • Hong Kong as a Service Economy (PDF). Hong Kong: The Facts (Report). Hong Kong Government. April 2016.
  • Hong Kong Energy Statistics – 2016 Annual Report (PDF) (Report). Census and Statistics Department. April 2017.
  • The Hong Kong Government Gazette (PDF) (Report). 3 September 1926 – via University of Hong Kong.
  • Human Development Indices and Indicators – Statistical Update 2018 (PDF) (Report). United Nations Development Programme. 2018.
  • Jiang, Guorong; Tang, Nancy; Law, Eve; Sze, Angela (September 2003). The Profitability of the Banking Sector in Hong Kong (PDF) (Report). Hong Kong Monetary Authority.
  • June 2019 (PDF). Hong Kong Monthly Digest of Statistics (Report). Census and Statistics Department. June 2019.
  • List of Political Affiliations of LegCo Members and DC Members (PDF) (Report). District Councils. 19 June 2017.
  • Literacy Rates Continue to Rise from One Generation to the Next (PDF) (Report). UNESCO. September 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 30 December 2019.
  • Lung, Charles C P; Sung, Y F (2010). A Century of Railway Development – The Hong Kong Story (PDF) (Report). Institution of Railway Signal Engineers. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 April 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  • Main Results (PDF). 2016 Population By-Census (Report). Census and Statistics Department. 2016.
  • Market Statistics 2018 (PDF) (Report). Hong Kong Stock Exchange. 2018.
  • Panel on Education (8 January 2007). Grant to the Hong Kong Shue Yan University for Establishing a General Development Fund (PDF) (Report). Legislative Council.
  • Panel on Home Affairs (June 2007). "List of Historical Buildings Declared as Monuments from 1997 to 2006" (PDF). The Queen's Pier (Report). Legislative Council.
  • Public Finance (PDF). Hong Kong: The Facts (Report). Hong Kong Government. May 2018.
  • Public Transport Strategy Study (PDF) (Report). Transport Department. June 2017.
  • Radio Television Hong Kong (PDF). The 2018–2019 Budget (Report). Hong Kong Government. 2018.
  • Railway Network (PDF). Hong Kong: The Facts (Report). Hong Kong Government. April 2018.
  • Registration and Licensing of Vehicles by Class of Vehicles (PDF) (Report). Transport Department. January 2018.
  • Religion and Custom (PDF). Hong Kong: The Facts (Report). Hong Kong Government. May 2016.
  • Subcommittee on Matters Relating to Railways (2014). Follow-ups on the Service Suspension of Tseung Kwan O Line and Part of Kwun Tong Line on 16 December 2013, and Report on Subsequent Major Incidents on East Rail Line and Light Rail (PDF) (Report). Legislative Council.
  • Task Force on Land Policy (2017). Reclamation Outside Victoria Harbour (PDF) (Report). Development Bureau.
  • Task Force on Population Policy (2002). Report of the Task Force on Population Policy (PDF) (Report). Hong Kong Government.
  • The Global Financial Centres Index 22 (PDF) (Report). China Development Institute. September 2017.
  • The Media (PDF). Hong Kong: The Facts (Report). Hong Kong Government. December 2017.
  • Thematic Report: Household Income Distribution in Hong Kong (PDF). 2016 Population By-Census (Report). Census and Statistics Department. July 2017.
  • Turismo (PDF). Hong Kong: The Facts (Report). Hong Kong Government. May 2016.
  • Transport (PDF). Hong Kong: The Facts (Report). Hong Kong Government. May 2016.
  • Report on Study of Road Traffic Congestion in Hong Kong (PDF) (Report). Transport and Housing Bureau. December 2014.
  • Transport and Housing Bureau (19 April 2017). Technical Legislative Amendments on Traffic Arrangements for the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge (PDF) (Report). Legislative Council.
  • Transport: Statistical Highlights (PDF) (Report). Legislative Council. 28 October 2016.
  • Triennial Central Bank Survey: Foreign exchange turnover in April 2016 (PDF) (Report). Bank for International Settlements. September 2016.
  • Usage of Information Technology and the Internet by Hong Kong Residents, 2000 to 2016 (PDF) (Report). Census and Statistics Department. November 2017.
  • Use of Chinese in Court Proceedings (PDF) (Report). Legislative Council. 2011.
  • Water Supplies (PDF). Hong Kong: The Facts (Report). Hong Kong Government. May 2016.
  • Women and Men in Hong Kong Key Statistics (PDF) (Report). Census and Statistics Department. July 2017.
  • Yu, Jian Zhen; Huang, Hilda; Ng, Wai Man (June 2013). Final Report for Provision of Service for Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Sample Chemical Analysis (PDF) (Report). Environmental Protection Department.

News and magazine articles

  • Baldwin, Clare; Lee, Yimou; Jim, Clare (30 December 2014). "Special Report: The mainland's colonisation of the Hong Kong economy". Reuters. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  • Bland, Ben (31 July 2016). "Hong Kong ban on pro-independence candidates sparks backlash". Financial Times. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
  • Chan, Bernice (17 July 2017). "Hong Kong villagers using solar energy to help power their homes – and show its potential as a source of electricity for city". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  • Chao, York (25 May 2013). "Racist Hong Kong is still a fact". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  • Cheung, Stephanie (23 March 2015). "The case for extending Hong Kong's 2047 deadline". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  • Cheung, Tony (10 May 2016). "Too soon to talk about 2047? Legal experts split on when Hong Kong should debate its future". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  • Cheung, Tony (28 February 2017). "Who goes there? Hong Kong's participation in China's 'two sessions' explained". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  • Cheung, Tony; Ho, Lauren (19 January 2013). "CY Leung insists housing policy won't cause property crash". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  • Chow, Vivienne (16 March 2017). "Hong Kong's TVB Targeting New Revenues With OTT Platform, Productions". Variedad. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  • Darrach, Amanda (14 June 2019). "How many really marched in Hong Kong? And how should we best guess crowd size?". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  • "End of an experiment". The Economist. 15 July 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
  • Frank, Robert (5 September 2018). "Hong Kong topples New York as world's richest city". CNBC. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  • Gargan, Edward A. (1 July 1997). "China Resumes Control of Hong Kong, Concluding 156 Years of British Rule". Los New York Times. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  • Ge, Celine (28 July 2017). "It's fade out for Hong Kong's film industry as China moves into the spotlight". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  • Gold, Anne (6 July 2001). "Hong Kong's Mile-Long Escalator System Elevates the Senses: A Stairway to Urban Heaven". Los New York Times. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
  • Griffiths, James; Lazarus, Sarah (22 October 2018). "World's longest sea-crossing bridge opens between Hong Kong and China". CNN. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  • Haas, Benjamin (14 July 2017). "Hong Kong pro-democracy legislators disqualified from parliament". El guardián. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  • He, Huifeng (13 January 2013). "Forgotten stories of the great escape to Hong Kong". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  • Hollingsworth, Julia; Zheng, Sarah (27 March 2017). "Top 10 Hong Kong skyscraper nicknames, from the Big Syringe to the Hong Kong Finger". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
  • Huang, Echo (15 November 2016). "A Hong Kong court has disqualified two legislators who refused to take their oath "correctly"". Cuarzo. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  • Kaiman, Jonathan (30 September 2014). "Hong Kong's umbrella revolution – the Guardian briefing". El guardián. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  • Kong, Daniel (8 August 2013). "Hong Kong Imports Over 90% of Its Food. Can It Learn to Grow?". Modern Farmer. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
  • Kwok, Donny (22 September 2018). "All aboard: Hong Kong bullet train signals high-speed integration with China". Reuters. Retrieved 26 September 2018.
  • Labarre, Suzanne (15 June 2010). "Ingenious Flipper Bridge Melds Left-Side Drivers With Right-Side Drivers". Fast Company. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  • Lendon, Brad (29 June 2017). "China makes its military more visible in Hong Kong". CNN. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  • Lhatoo, Yonden (17 September 2015). "Racism is rife in Hong Kong and the Equal Opportunities Commission is a toothless hamster to tackle it". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  • Liu, Alfred (5 September 2018). "These Are the Cities With the Most Ultra-Rich People". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  • Mok, Danny (14 February 2018). "Going up! Prices for Hong Kong's famous Peak Tram to increase for second time in less than two years". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
  • Mok, Danny; Lee, Eddie (4 March 2015). "Let Hongkongers serve in China's People's Liberation Army, says top military official". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  • Ngo, Jennifer; Cheung, Elizabeth (16 March 2016). "A case for inclusion: Carrie Lam pledges to tout list of 16 ethnic minority Hongkongers for government advisory positions". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  • Park, Kyunghee (23 January 2019). "Once the World's Greatest Port, Hong Kong Sinks in Global Ranking". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  • Sala, Ilaria Maria (1 September 2016). "As Hong Kong goes to the polls, why isn't the Communist Party on the ballot?". Cuarzo. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  • Siu, Phila; Chung, Kimmy (27 December 2017). "Controversial joint checkpoint plan approved for high-speed rail link as Hong Kong officials dismiss concerns over legality". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  • Tam, Luisa (11 September 2017). "Self-centred, demanding, materialistic and arrogant: how to steer clear of the Kong Girls". South China Morning Post. Hong Kong. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  • Tatlow, Didi Kirsten (2 February 2017). "On Deck With China's Last Junk Builders, Masters of an Ebbing Craft". Los New York Times. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  • "To restore calm in Hong Kong, try democracy". The Economist. 20 June 2019. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  • Wong, Joshua; Lim, Emily (23 February 2017). "We must resist until China gives Hong Kong a say in our future". El guardián. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
  • Yau, Cannix; Zhou, Viola (9 June 2017). "What hope for the poorest? Hong Kong wealth gap hits record high". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
  • Yu, Verna (6 January 2013). "Veterans who fled mainland for Hong Kong in 1970s tell their stories". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  • Zhao, Shirley (6 September 2015). "'If you tell them you are Pakistani, they won't give you the flat': Finding a Hong Kong home is battle against prejudice for ethnic minorities". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  • Zheng, Sarah (14 January 2017). "Hong Kong's heritage sites face continued threat despite government grading system". South China Morning Post. Hong Kong. Retrieved 5 March 2018.

Websites

enlaces externos

Gobierno
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Maps

Coordinates: 22°18′N 114°12′E / 22.3°N 114.2°E / 22.3; 114.2

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Les guides : Les croisières de la Baie de Hong-Kong et Les sites touristiques incontournables à visiter